Anthropometry refers to measurements of individual human bodies. Basically, each tool used in anthropometric studies serves as an identification tool. It is used to understand human physical variation, and in various attempts to relate physical to racial and psychological traits. In addition, anthropometry also involves a systematic measurement of the physical properties of the human body, especially the dimensions of the size and shape of the human body.
Anthropometry in Architectural Design
Basically, anthropometry affects various industries. In addition, anthropometric measurements have a considerable role in optimizing the construction of a building design. The dimensions and capabilities of human motion are very important in determining the overall design of the building. The basic principle of anthropometrics is that building design must be well adapted to fit the dimensions of the human body and human motion. Rather than people having to adapt to fit the design of the building. The importance of buildings that are in accordance with human needs, will produce ergonomic principles that are useful in daily activities.
Two basic areas in anthropometry
1. Static anthropometry
Static anthropometry is a body size measurement carried out when the condition of one’s body is at rest or in a static state. In addition, measurements can be made when the body is using devices such as chairs, tables, beds, mobility devices, and so on.
2. Functional anthropometry
In contrast to static anthropometry, functional anthropometry is a measurement of human motion related to the completion of tasks, moves, and matters related to the use of space and equipment. For example, for factory employees, measurements are made when they are operating equipment in the room.
The use of anthropometry in building design aims to ensure that everyone has as much comfort as possible while doing work. For example, dimensions must be appropriate, the roof ceiling is quite high, the doors and aisles are wide enough, and so on. Lately, anthropometry has also been used for the purposes of workplace design, such as the example of the relationship between tables, chairs, keyboards, and computer screen displays.
Conventional measurements usually use measuring instruments such as anthropometers, measuring tape and calipers. These measurements can sometimes cause data errors. So, it is better to do measurements with more modern tools such as anthropometric chairs.
In this case, dynamic measurement is also known. Research based on dynamic measurement must contribute to a number of factors, namely comfort, efficiency, comfort, and human safety. One can imagine how good design is for industrial workers, school rooms, vehicles and machinery, and also for military problems. There must be contributions to the design of furniture and architecture of workspaces such as kitchens and bathrooms.
Creating a Site Conditions with Ergonomic Principles
In creating a design of the building, each architect is required to create a building which has ergonomic principles. If you don’t understand the term ‘ergonomic’, you can read the previous article. Ergonomics is closely related to anthropometry itself. Where can it be said if to create conditions in accordance with the ergonomics, someone is required to understand anthropometry.
Before designing any building, it is mandatory for an architect to prepare measurements for various architectural features such as roof height, width and height of doors, area and height of stairs, even things such as locks and hooks etc.
All of these things must be ergonomically planned that are suitable for workers and users who will use the space or building taking into account the anthropometry of these people. In addition, anthropometric measurements cannot be equated, for example measuring people in Indonesia and measuring in America are of course two different things. So, we cannot use anthropometric measurements from other countries such as using measurement data in Indonesia to design architecture in America.
Making Ergonomic Room Designs in a Home Shelter
When designing a home environment, for example, an architect needs to take into account the most comfortable and efficient ways to work around space, but still maintain an attractive design for the area. In the kitchen, for example, there needs to be enough space to move freely, but it can easily reach various cabinets, drawers and utilities easily.
In addition, the ergonomic innovation for the kitchen space is the kitchen working triangle, where the three main work functions of the kitchen, namely refrigerators, sinks and stoves, are within close proximity to one another but not close enough to make someone feel controlled and uncomfortable so that they can work efficiently in space.